Organic Water Treatment
Chemicals
Steam Boilers, Cooling Towers,
Hot And Chilled Closed Systems
Fuel Oil Treatment
(Home of D.M Concentrate)
Metric Handbook
Table of
Contents
Chapter
1  General Information And
Guidance
A. Introduction
I1
B. Metric
Products I1
C. Metric
Facts. I2
_ 1. Length
I2
_ 2. Power
I2
_ 3. Pressure
and Stress I2
D. Applying
the Metric System I2
_ 1. Becoming
Familiar with the Size of Metric
Units I2
_ 2. Units of
Length I3
_ 3. Units of
Weight I4
_ 4. Units
of Volume I5
E. Basic
Metric I6
_ 1. Base
Units I6
_ 2. Decimal
Prefixes I6
_ 3. Plane
and Solid Angles I6
_ 4. Derived
Units I6
_ 5. Liter,
Hectare, and Metric Ton I7
F. Metric
Rules I7
_ 1. Rules
for Writing Metric Symbols and
Names I7
_ 2. Rules
for Writing Numbers I8
_ 3. Rules
for Conversion and Rounding
I8
_ 4. Rules
for Linear Measurement (Length)
I8
_ 5. Rules
for Area I8
_ 6. Rules
for Volume and Fluid Capacity
I9
G. Conversion
Factors for Length, Area, and
Volume I9
H. Estimating
Basics I10
_ 1. Construction
Time/Costs I10
_ 2. Cost
I10
_ 3. Design
Costs I10
_ 4. Estimating
Tools I10
I. Preferred
Metric Dimensions in Building
Construction I10
J. Construction
Trades I11
K. Drawing
and Specifications Guidance
I13
_ 1. Drawing
Scales I13
_ 2. Metric
Units Used on Drawings I15
_ 3. Drawing
Sizes I15
_ 4. Codes
and Standards I16
_ 5. Submittals
I16
_ 6. Specifications
I17
Chapter
2  General Information and
Guidance
A. Architectural
II1
_ 1. Block
II1
_ 2. Brick
II1
_ 3. Carpet
II2
_ 4. Ceiling
Systems II2
_ 5. Drywall
II2
_ 6. Doors
II2
_ 7. Elevators
II3
_ 8. Glass
II3
_ 9. Lumber
II3
_ 10.Plywood
II4
_ 11.Roofing
II4
_ 12.Sheet
Metal II4
_ 13.Stone
II5
_ 14.Metal
Studs II5
_ 15.Woodwork
II5
B. Civil
Engineering II6
_ 1.Units
II6
_ 2.Rules
for Civil Engineering II6
C. Structural
Engineering II8
_ 1. Units
II8
_ 2. Rules
for Structural Engineers
II8
_ 3. Structural
Strategies II8
D. Surveying
and Project Layout II9
E. Materials
Guidance (General) II11
_ 1. Concrete
II11
_ 2. Concrete
Pipe II11
_ 3. Geotechnical
II11
_ 4. Reinforcement
II12
_ 5. Pipe
II12
_ 6. General
Fasteners II13
_ 7. Anchor
Bolts II13
_ 8. Fastener
Data II14
F. Electrical
Engineering II18
_ 1. Units
II18
_ 2. Rules
for Electrical Engineering
II19
_ 3. Conversion
Factors II19
_ 4. Conduit
II20
_ 5. Cabling
II21
_ 6. Fiber
Optics II22
_ 7. Lighting
Fixtures II22
G. Mechanical
Engineering II22
_ 1. Units
II22
_ 2. Rules
for Mechanical Engineering
II23
_ 3. General
Guidelines II23
_ 4. Conversion
II23
_ 5. Heating,
Ventilating, and Air
Conditioning II25
_ 6. Pipes
II25
_ 7. Schedules
II26
_ 8. Temperature
II26
Glossary
of Terms Appendix 1
Conversion
Tables Appendix 2
Project
Plans (Illustrative Examples)
Appendix 3
Road Design Data . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 13
Garage Elevation . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 4
Guardrail . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 4
Renovation Plan . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 5
Restroom Plan . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 6
Window . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 7
Door Jamb . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 8
Foundation Wall . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 9
Base Plate . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 10
Air Distribution . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 11
Reflected Ceiling . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 12
Acknowledgements
Chapter
1
A.
Introduction. This
Handbook introduces the basics
of the metric system, including
conversion factors from the
InchPound System to the System
International (SI) Metric
System.
1. The Bureau is committed to
doing engineering design in the
metric system, thereby meeting
the requirements of the Metric
Conversion Act and Executive
Order 12770
2. Bids to date have not
shown detectable premiums for
metric. No additional funds are
being allocated for metric
construction.
B.
Metric Products. Some
"hard" metric products
have minimum order quantities
that may limit them to a project
involving renovation of an
entire floor or more of a
building. Most products,
however, are identical to the
Englishdimensioned products and
can be used on any project.
Most modular products are
undergoing "hard
conversion"  their
dimensions will change to new
rounded metric numbers.
Suspended ceiling grids will
convert to 600 x 600 mm or 600 x
1200 mm. Drywall, plywood, and
rigid insulation will change to
1200 mm widths, but their
thicknesses will remain the same
to eliminate the need for
recalculating fire and acoustic
rates and Uvalues. Raised
access flooring will go to 600 x
600 mm. Brick will become 90 x
57 x 190 mm and block will
become 190 x 190 x 390 mm; both
will use 10mm mortar joints and
be laid in 600mm modules.
Before specifying hard metric
products be sure they are
available from the suppliers in
the area where the project is
located.
What happens to the
traditional 2by4 wood stud?
Twobyfour inches is a nominal
size, not a finished size.
Neither wood studs nor other
framing lumber will change in
crosssection, but they will be
spaced at 400 mm instead of 16
inches  about 1/4 inch closer
together. Batt insulation
installed between studs might
not change in width; instead,
there will be more of a
"friction fit."
There are other products in
the same category. A 2inch pipe
has neither an inside nor an
outside diameter of 2 inches. A
24inch Ibeam contains no
actual 24inch dimension. These
products won't change sizes
either; they'll just be
relabeled. Perhaps they will
eventually get new nominal
names, such as 50mm pipe or
600mm beams. However, with or
without names, the metrication
process won't be affected.
C.
Metric Facts.
1.
Length. The meter has
been defined as the wavelength
of a specified radiation equal
to 3.2808398 ft. For conversion,
one foot equals 0.3048 meters or
304.8 millimeters.
For shorter lengths, the
meter is divided into 1000 parts
or millimeters (mm); 25.4 mm = 1
inch.
2.
Tertiary Powers of 10. Use
tertiary powers of 10 (.001, 1,
1000 for units of measure, i.e.,
millimeters, meters, and
kilometers. In most cases,
intermediate powers (.01, .1,
100) should not be used in
construction, i.e., centimeters,
decimeters, and hectometers.
2.
Power. In the inchpound
system, power is expressed in
many different ways  Btu per
hour, horsepower, foot/pound
force per second, etc. This
multitude of terms results in
the need for much converting. In
the metric system, power
consumption, as well as the
power output of an electric
motor, is expressed in watts,
making the efficiency of the
motor easily calculated.
For conversion purposes,
there are 746 watts in one
horsepower.
Problem: A gasoline engine is
rated at 100 hp. What is its
power output expressed in metric
units?
Solution: 100 hp. x (746/hp)W
x k/1000 = 74.6 kW
3.
Pressure and Stress. In
the inchpound system, pressure
and stress are expressed in many
ways, including pounds per
square inch (psi), inches of
mercury, and inches of water. In
the metric system, the unit for
pressure and stress is the pascal.
One pascal is defined as the
force of one newton exerted over
an area of one square meter. In
symbolic language, this is shown
as Pa = N/m2.
One psi equals 6894 pascals.
Since the pascal is such a small
unit, pressure and stress are
often given in kilopascals (kPa)
or megapascals (MPa),
Problem: The operating
pressure in a boiler is 125 psi.
Express this in pascals with a
convenient prefix.
Solution: 125 lb/in2 x 6894
Pa/lb/in2 x k/1000 = 892 kPa
D.
Applying the Metric System.
1. Becoming
Familiar with the Size of Metric
Units. When you hear the
terms inch, foot, yard, mile,
ounce, pound, pint, quart, and
gallon, you have good idea of
their size. That's because we
use these terms almost every
day.
Although we often hear metric
terms such as millimeter,
centimeter, meter, kilometer,
gram, kilogram, and liter, we
feel much less comfortable with
them because we don't have a
good picture of their size. In
this section our goal is to
provide visual reminders and ball
park sizes for these metric
units.
A few basic comparisons are
worth remembering to help
visualize or at least roughly
convert between U.S. and metric:
a. One inch is just a
fraction (1/64 inch) longer than
25 mm (1 inch = 25.4 mm; 25 mm =
63/64 inch).
b. Four inches are about 1/16
inch longer than 100 mm (4
inches = 101.6 mm; 100 mm =
315/16 inches).
c. One foot is about 3/16
inch longer than 300 mm
(12 inches = 304.8 mm; 300 mm
= 1113/16 inches).
d. Four feet are about 3/4
inch longer than 1200 mm
(4 feet = 1219.2 mm; 1200 mm
= 3 feet, 111/4 inches).
e. Therefore, the metric
equivalent of a 4 by 8 sheet of
plywood or drywall would be 1200
x 2400 mm.
f. Rounding down from
multiples of 4 inches to
multiples of 100 mm makes
dimensions exactly 1.6 percent
smaller and areas about 3.2
percent smaller.
g. One meter equals about
391/2 inches, just under 31/2
inches longer than a yard.
2. Units
of Length. The stem unit of
length is the meter. A meter is
a little longer than a yard,
about a yard plus the length of
a piece of chalk.
Illustration 1  Meter
(a little longer than a yard).
A millimeter, which is
onethousandth of a meter, is
about the thickness of a dime.
Illustration 2  Millimeter
(about the thickness of a dime).
A kilometer, which is 1000
meters, is about 5/8ths of a
mile. If a mile is about 10 city
blocks, then a kilometer is
about 6 blocks. A mile is 4
times around a typical nonmetric
track. A kilometer is about 2.5
times around the track.
Illustration 3  Kilometer
(about 5/8 of a mile).
3. Units
of Weight. The stem unit of
weight is the gram. A gram is
quite small. A package of Sweet
'n LowTM has a weight of one
gram. A paper clip also has a
weight of about one gram.
Illustration 4  Gram
(contents of a package of
artificial sweetener).
A milligram, which is
onethousandth of a gram, is
much smaller. Imagine dividing
up the contents of a package of
artificial sweetener into 1000
equal parts. One of those parts
is a milligram.
A kilogram, which is 1000
grams, is a little over 2 pounds
(2.2 pounds)  about the weight
of a goodsized orange.
4.
Units of Volume. The base
unit for volume is the liter. A
liter is somewhat larger than a
quart. A quart is 32 fluid
ounces, while a liter is 33.8
fluid ounces, or about a quart
and a quarter of a cup.
Illustration 5  Liter
(about a quart and a quarter of
a cup).
A milliliter, which is
onethousandth of a liter, is
quite small. It takes about 5
milliliters to make one
teaspoon.
E.
Basic Metric.
1.
Base Units. In the metric
system, all quantities are
derived using decimal units
derived from the following base
units of measurement, six of
which are used in design and
construction.
TABLE 1
BASIC UNITS
Quantity/Measurement
 S.I. Unit
 Symbol

length
mass
time
electric current
temperature
luminous intensity
 meter
kilogram
second
ampere
kelvin
candela
 m
kg
s
A
K
cd

Celsius temperature (oC) is
more commonly used than kelvin
(K), but both have the same
temperature gradients. Celsius
temperature is simply 273.15
degrees warmer than kelvin,
which begins at absolute zero.
2.
Decimal Prefixes.
Although prefixes mega (M) for
one million (106), giga (G), for
one billion (109), micro () for
one millionth (106), and nano
(n) for one billionth (109) are
used in some engineering
calculations, the two most
commonly used specialized
prefixes are below:
TABLE 2
DECIMAL PREFIXES
Prefix
 Symbol
 Order of Magnitude
 Expression

kilo
milli
 k
m
 103
103
 1000 (one thousand)
0.001 (one
thousandth)

3.
Plane and Solid Angles.
The radian (rad) and steradian (sr)
denote plane and solid angles.
They are used in lighting work
and in various engineering
calculations. In surveying, the
units degree (), minute ('), and
second (") continue in use.
4.
Derived Units. Other
derived units used in
engineering calculations are
shown below:
TABLE 3
DERIVED UNITS
Quantity
 Name
 Symbol
 Expression

frequency
force
pressure, stress
energy, work,
quantity of heat
power, radiant flux
electric charge,
quantity
electric potential
capacitance
electric resistance
electric conductance
magnetic flux
magnetic flux density
inductance
luminous flux
illuminance
 hertz
newton
pascal
joule
watt
coulomb
volt
farad
ohm
siemens
weber
tesla
henry
lumen
lux
 Hz
N
Pa
J
W
C
V
F
S
Wb
T
H
lm
lx
 Hz=1/s
N=kgm/s2
Pa=N/m2
J=Nm
W=J/s
C=As
V=W/A or J/C
F=C/V
=V/A
S=A/V or 1/
Wb=Vs
T=Wb/m2
H=Wb/A
lm=cdsr
lx=lm/m2

5.
Liter, Hectare, and Metric
Ton. The liter (L) measures
liquid volume. The hectare (ha)
measures surface area. The
metric ton (t) is used to denote
mass.
F.
Metric Rules.
1.
Rules For Writing Metric
Symbols and Names.
a. Print unit symbols in
lower case except for liter (L)
or unless the unit name is
derived from a proper name.
b. Print unit names in lower
case, even those derived from a
proper name.
c. Leave a space between a
numeral and a symbol (write
45 kg or 37 oC, not 45kg or
37oC or 37o C).
d. Do not leave a space
between a unit symbol and its
decimal prefix (write kg, not k
g).
e. Do not use the plural of
unit symbols (write 45 kg, not
45 kgs), but do use the plural
of written unit names (several
kilograms).
f. Do not mix names and
symbols (write Nm or newton
meter, not Nmeter or newtonm).
g. Do not use a period after
a symbol (write "12 g",
not "12 g.") except
when it occurs at the end of a
sentence.
2.
Rules For Writing Numbers.
a. Use a zero before the
decimal marker for values less
than one (write 0.45 g, not .45
g).
b. Use spaces instead of
commas to separate blocks of
three digits for any number over
four digits (write 45 138 kg or
0.004 46 kg or 4371 kg).
3.
Rules for Conversion and
Rounding.
a. To convert numbers from
inchpound to metric, round the
metric value to the same number
of digits as there were in the
inchpound (11 miles at 1.609
km/mi equals 17.699 km, which
rounds to 18 km).
b. To avoid mistakes, convert
mixed inchpound units (feet and
inches, pounds and ounces) to
the smaller inchpound unit
before converting to metric and
rounding (10 feet, 3 inches =
123 inches; 123 inches x 25.4 mm
= 3124.2 mm; round to 3120 mm).
c. In a "soft
conversion", an inchpound
measurement is mathematically
converted to its exact (or
nearly exact) metric equivalent.
With hard conversion, a new
rounded, rationalized metric
number is created that is
convenient to work with and
remember. A hard conversion is
also an item or component that
is made to metric size by a
manufacturer.
4.
Rules For Linear Measurement
(Length).
a. Use only the meter and
millimeter in building design
and construction.
b. Use the kilometer for long
distances and the micrometer for
precision measurements.
c. Do not use the centimeter.
d. For survey measurement,
use the meter and the kilometer.
5.
Rules For Area.
a. The square meter is most
commonly used.
b. Large areas may be
expressed in square kilometers
and small areas in square
millimeters.
c. The hectare (10 000 square
meters) is used for land and
water measurement only.
d. Do not use the square
centimeter.
e. Linear dimensions such as
40 x 90 mm may be used; if so,
indicate width first and length
second.
6.
Rules For Volume and Fluid
Capacity.
a. The cubic meter is most
commonly used for volumes in
construction and for storage
tanks.
b. Use the liter (L) and
millimeter (mL) for fluid
capacity (liquid volume). One
liter is 1/1000 of a cubic meter
or 1000 cubic centimeters.
G.
Conversion Factors for
Length, Area, and Volume.
See
Table 4 for guidance when
converting from InchPound Units
to Metric Units. Appendix 2
contains complete tables of
conversion factors.
TABLE
4
LENGTH,
AREA, and VOLUME CONVERSION
FACTORS
QUANTITY
 FROM
INCHPOUND UNITS
 TO METRIC
UNITS
 MULTIPLY
BY:

Length
 mile
yard
foot
foot
inch
 km
m
m
mm
mm
 1.609
344
0.914 4
0.304 8
304.8
25.4

Area
 square
mile
acre
acre
square yard
square foot
square inch
 km2
m2
ha (10 000 m2)
m2
m2
mm2
 2.590 99
4046.856
0.404 685 6
0.836 127 36
0.092 903 04
645.16

Volume
 acre foot
cubic yard
cubic foot
cubic foot
cubic foot
100 bd feet
gallon
cubic inch
 m3
m3
m3
cm3
L (1000 cm3)
m3
L (1000 cm3)
mm3
 1233.49
0.764 555
0.028 316 8
28 316.85
28.316 85
0.235 974
3.785 41
16 387.064

NOTE: Underline denotes exact
number.
H.
Estimating Basics.
1.
Construction Time/Costs.
Metric design and construction
take the same number of months
as English projects. No
adjustments have been made to
time expectations.
2.
Cost. These estimates
shall be done in metric units
only.
3.
Design Costs. There will
be no change to the standard
design fee charts used to
calculate design costs, given
that: a. specifications are
metric,
b. metric estimating tools
are offered,
c. criteria are metric,
d. most codes and standards
are in metric, and
e. sample drawings exist for
most items.
4.
Estimating Tools. The R.S.
Means Company, Inc. offers
metric estimating handbooks.
There are several construction
metric databases available from
private firms.
I.
Preferred Metric Dimensions
in Building Construction.
1. In design and
construction, most measurement
statements involve linear
measurement. Frequently, such
measurement statements are not
independent; they are part of a
set or sequence of values. A
common set of preferred
dimensions is used to establish
the geometry of a building as
well as the sizes of constituent
components or assemblies. To
select the most appropriate
metric values during conversion
of linear dimensions, it is
helpful to appreciate the
concept of dimensional
coordination, which involves
special dimensional preferences
for buildings and building
products. Because all preferred
dimensions are related to a
building module, the term
modular coordination is
sometimes substituted. In
building construction, the
fundamental unit of size is the
basic module of 100 mm. It is
slightly shorter than the
4" (101.6 mm) module that
has been used in the United
States, and should not be
equated with this customary
module because metric modular
product dimensions will be 1.6%
shorter.
2. The basic module of 100 mm
has already been endorsed as the
basic unit of size in metric
dimensional coordination in the
United States. Preferred
dimensions of buildings and
preferred sizes of building
components should be whole
multiples of 100 mm, wherever
practicable.
3. Building products vary
from small components placed by
hand that range in size up to
about 1000 mm, to larger
elements placed by mechanical
means that may range up to 12
000 mm.
Building dimensions vary from
small thicknesses of structural
elements and dimensions of small
spaces to very large spaces with
dimensions of 60 000 mm or more
in special structures. To ensure
efficient use of materials,
preferred dimensions play an
important part in design,
production, and construction.
4. It is important to
appreciate that preferred
dimensions in the context of
metric dimensional coordination
are reference dimensions or
ideal dimensions rather than
actual dimensions. Allowances
for joints, tolerances, and
deviations are taken into
account in the determination of
actual dimensions. For example,
when a component is described by
a preferred size of 400 mm, this
dimension includes an allowance
for half a joint width on either
side of the component, and the
actual dimension is less to
ensure fit in a coordinating
space. If the design joint
thickness is 10 mm, the
dimension for use as a
manufacturing target dimension
will be 390 mm.
5. The construction process
involves joining many individual
and often repetitive components,
assemblies, or elements into an
organized whole. Therefore,
building dimensions that are
highly divisible multiples of
the basic module are superior to
prime number multiples.
J.
Construction Trades. The
metric units used in the
construction trades are charted
below. The term
"length" includes all
linear measurements (that is,
length, width, height,
thickness, diameter, and
circumference).
TABLE
5
CONSTRUCTION
UNITS and TERMINOLOGY

TRADE
 QUANTITY
 UNIT
 SYMBOL

Carpentry
 length
 meter, millimeter
 m, mm

Concrete
 length
 meter, millimeter
 m, mm

area
 square meter
 m2

volume
 cubic meter
 m3

temperature
 degree Celsius
 oC

water capacity
 liter (1000 cm3)
 L

mass (weight)
 gram, kilogram
 g, kg

crosssec. area
 square millimeter
 mm2

Drainage
 length
 meter, millimeter
 m, mm

area
 square meter
 m2

volume
 cubic meter
 m3

slope
 millimeter/meter
 mm/m

Electrical
 length
 meter, millimeter
 m, mm

frequency
 hertz
 Hz

power
 watt, kilowatt
 W, kW

elec. current
 ampere
 A

elec. potential
 volt, kilovolt
 V, kV

resistance
 ohm


energy
 kilojoule, megajoule
 kJ, MJ

Excavating
 length
 meter, millimeter
 m, mm

volume
 cubic meter
 m3

Glazing
 length
 meter, millimeter
 m, mm

area
 square meter
 m2

HVAC
 length
 meter, millimeter
 m, mm

force
 newton, kilonewton
 N, kN

volume
 cubic meter
 m3

temperature
 degree Celsius
 oC

capacity
 liter (1000 cm3)
 L

velocity
 meter/second
 m/s

rate of heat flow
 watt, kilowatt
 W, kW

energy, work
 kilojoule, megajoule
 kJ, MJ

Masonry
 length
 meter, millimeter
 m, mm

area
 square meter
 m2

mortar volume
 cubic meter
 m3

Painting
 length
 meter, millimeter
 m, mm

area
 square meter
 m2

capacity
 liter, milliliter(cm3)
 L, mL

Paving
 length
 meter, millimeter
 m, mm

area
 square meter
 m2

Plastering
 length
 meter, millimeter
 m, mm

area
 square meter
 m2

water capacity
 liter (1000 cm3)
 L

Plumbing
 length
 meter, millimeter
 m, mm

mass
 gram, kilogram
 g, kg

capacity
 liter (1000 cm3)
 L

pressure
 kilopascal
 kPa

Roofing
 length
 meter, millimeter
 m, mm

area
 square meter
 m2

slope
 millimeter/meter
 mm/m

Steel
 length
 meter, millimeter
 m, mm

mass
 gram, kilogram
metric ton (1000 kg)
 m2
t

Surveying
 length
 meter, kilometer
 m, km

area
 square meter
square kilometer
hectare (10,000 m2)
 m2
km2
ha

plane angle
 degree (nonmetric)
minute (nonmetric)
second (nonmetric)
 o
'
"

Trucking
 distance
 kilometer
 km

volume
 cubic meter
 m3

mass
 metric ton (1000 kg)
 t

K.
Drawing and Specifications
Guidance.
1.
Drawing Scales.
a. Metric drawing scales are
expressed in nondimensional
ratios.
b. Nine scales are preferred;
1:1 (full size), 1:5, 1:10,
1:20, 1:50, 1:100, 1:200, 1:500,
and 1:1000. Three others have
limited usage: 1:2, 1:25, and
1:250.
TABLE
6
COMPARISON
BETWEEN INCHFOOT and
METRIC SCALES

InchFoot Scales

Ratios
 Metric
Scales

Remarks

Preferred
 Other

Full Size
 1:1
 1:1

 No Change

Half Size
 1:2

 1:2
 No Change

4" = 1'0"
3" = 1'0"
 1:3
1:4

1:5


Close to 3"
scale

2" = 1'0"
11/2" =
1'0"
1" = 1'0"
 1:6
1:8
1:12

1:10


Between 1" and
11/2" scales

3/4" = 1'0"
1/2" =
1'0"
 1:16
1:24

1:20

1:25

Between 1/2" and
3/4" scales
Close to 1/2"
scale

3/8" = 1'0"
1/4" =
1'0"
1" = 5'0"
3/16" =
1'0"
 1:32
1:48
1:60
1:64

1:50


Close to 1/4"
scale

1/8" = 1'0"
1" = 10'0"
3/32" =
1'0"
 1:96
1:120
1:128

1:100


Close to 1/8"
scale

1/16" =
1'0"
 1:192

1:200


Close to 1/16"
scale

1" = 20'0"
 1:240


1:250

Close to 1" =
20'0" scale

1" = 30'0"
1/32" =
1'0"
1" = 40'0"
 1:360
1:384
1:480

1:500


Close to 1" =
40'0"

1" = 50'0"
1" = 60'0"
1" = 1 chain
1" = 80'0"
 1:600
1:720
1:792
1:960

1:1000


Close to 1" =
80'0"

2.
Metric Units Used on Drawings.
a. Use only one unit of
measure on a drawing. Except for
largescale site or cartographic
drawings, the unit should be the
millimeter (mm). Centimeters
shall not be used. On large
scale site or cartographic
drawings, the unit should be the
meter.
b. Metric drawings use
millimeters (mm) exclusively.
Each drawing should have the
following note on it:
"All DIMENSIONS
ARE MILLIMETERS (mm) UNLESS
OTHERWISE NOTED."
c. Metric drawings should
almost never show decimal
millimeters (for example:
2034.5), unless a high precision
part or product thickness is
being detailed. Use whole
millimeters (for example: 2035).
d. Dual dimensions should not
be used; for example, 200 mm
(77/8").
e. A space should separate
groups of three digits on
drawing dimensions. This allows
faster and more accurate
dimensional interpretation. For
example: A 20meter dimension
would show as 20 000 (twenty
thousand millimeters).
3.
Drawing Sizes.
a. The ISO "A"
series drawing sizes are
preferred metric sizes for
design drawings. A0 is the base
drawing size with an area of one
square meter. Smaller sizes are
obtained by halving the long
dimension of the previous size.
All A0 sizes have a
heighttowidth ratio of one to
the square root of 2 (1:1.414).
b. There are five
"A" series sizes:
(1) A0 1189 x 841 mm (46.8 x
33.1 inches)
(2) A1 841 x 594 mm (33.1 x
23.4 inches)
(3) A2 594 x 420 mm (23.4 x
16.5 inches)
(4) A3 420 x 297 mm (16.5 x
11.7 inches)
(5) A4 297 x 210 mm (11.7 x
8.3 inches)
4.
Codes and Standards.
Codes and standards needed for
design are available today in
metric. Codes and standards have
not hindered renovation or new
construction designs in metric
to date. For codes or standards
not in metric, rounding
techniques have proven
sufficient.
5.
Submittals. To assist
manufacturers with metric
conversion, the following
submittal classes should be
utilized. These classes should
be supplemented for each
project.
a. Class 1. Drawings That
Must Be Metric Only. English
units are not permitted on these
submittals. Drawings must use
metric scales. In general, any
drawing that is job specific,
and is custom generated for this
project, must be in metric only.
Here are some samples:
Floor Plans
Reflected Ceiling Drawings
Stairwell Erection Drawings
Foundation Wall Drawings
Concrete/Rebar Installation
Drawings
Sitework Drawings
Sheeting and Shoring Plans
Steel Erection/Fabrication
Drawings and Details
Precast Manhole Drawings
Door Schedules
Wall Paneling Drawings
Caisson Details
Millwork Drawings
Cabinet Work Details
Toilet Room Details
Ductwork Drawings
Pipe Installation Drawings
HVAC Schedules
Switchgear Drawings
Electrical Component Layout
Drawings
Signage Drawings
b. Class 2. Data That Must
Be Metric Only. The
following types of items must be
submitted in metric only. Data
generated specifically for these
projects must also be submitted
in SI only.
Concrete Design Mixes
Concrete Test Data
Core Bore Depths Data
Aggregate Mixes (must show
metric sieves)
Mechanical Air and Water Flow
or Balancing Data
Environmental or Hazardous
Material Data
Most Test Data
Other data generated for the
project that is not in bound,
preprinted catalogs or
publications.
6.
Specifications.
a. Millimeters (mm).
Metric specifications should use
mm for most measurements, even
large ones. Use of mm is
consistent with dimensions in
major codes, such as the
National Building Code (Building
Officials and Code
Administrators International,
Inc.) and the National Electric
Code (National Fire Protection
Association).
Use of mm leads to integers
for all building dimensions and
nearly all building product
dimensions, so use of the
decimal point is almost
completely eliminated.
b. Meters (m). Meters
may be used where large, round
metric sizes are involved.
Example:
"Contractor will be
provided an area of 5 by 20
meters for storage of
materials."
c. Centimeters (cm).
Centimeters should never
be used in specifications.
Centimeters are not used in
major codes. Use of centimeters
leads to extensive usage of
decimal points. Whole
millimeters should be used for
specific measurements, unless
extreme precision is being
indicated. A credit card is
about 1 mm thick.
(1) Example 1  Mortar
Joint Thickness. If a
3/8inch mortar joint between
brick is needed, this would
convert to 9.525 mm. Whole mm
should be used, so specify 10 mm
joint thickness.
(2) Example 2  Stainless
Steel Thickness. Bath
accessories are commonly made
from 22gauge (0.034in) thick
stainless steel. Exact
conversion is 0.8636 mm. This is
a precision measurement; an
appropriate conversion is 0.86
mm.
(3) Example 3  Concrete
Thickness. Concrete shall be
200 mm thick.
(4) Example 4  Clearance.
Clearance shall be 1500 mm.
In specifications, the unit
symbols (e.g., m or mm) are
almost always present. Little
room exists for confusion. On
drawings, using mm eliminates
the need to write m or mm and
eliminates decimal usage for all
but largescale civil and road
design drawings.
A small class of items
reference standards using
centimeters or square
centimeters, such as fire
ratings for some products. These
items only, which account for
less than 2 percent of
specification references, should
make reference to centimeters or
square centimeters.
d. Nominal Technique.
Many specification references
can effectively use nominal
mass, nominal volume, or nominal
length technique. For example,
if one gallon (3.785 L) of
product X is required, the
specification could be rewritten
using nominal volume, requiring
4 L ( 0.25 L). Users can then
say "4 liters" when
referencing this item, while
still allowing the current
product to be submitted.
e. Professional Rounding.
This technique takes the result
of simple mathematical rounding
and applies professional
judgment. First, a small
discussion of metric design is
necessary. The basic module of
metric design is 100 mm. The
multimodules and submodules, in
preferred order, are 6000, 3000,
1200, 600, 300, 100, 50, 25, 20,
and 10.
(1) How to Use
Professional Rounding.
(a) Convert the dimension
mathematically. Let's say a
pavement width in some codes
becomes 914 mm minimum.
(b) Select a replacement
dimension.
(i) 1000 would be the
preferred replacement.
(ii) 950 would be used only
with justification.
(iii) 900 would offend the
code and could not be used.
(2) How to Correctly Apply
Professional Judgment to Design
Criteria.
(a) Example: Conversion of
an Existing Code Requirement
(i) Determine the
nonoffending direction.
National Building Code Article
1011.3 requires 44 inches (1118
mm) of unobstructed pedestrian
corridor width. However, 1118 mm
is not a clean number. It should
be rounded to facilitate the
cleanest construction possible.
Narrower offends the code. The
nonoffending direction is
larger, so it is better to round
up.
(ii) Every effort should be
made to keep design dimensions
in increments of 100 mm, which
is the basic module, or in
multimodules.
f. Measurements. All
measurements in construction
specifications should be stated
in metric. Until existing
specification systems are fully
converted, the specifier may:
(1) Specify metric
products. Check to see if
the products to be specified are
available in metric sizes.
(2) Refer to metric or
dual unit codes and standards.
The American Society of Heating,
Refrigerating, and
AirConditioning Engineers, Inc.
(ASHRAE), American Society of
Mechanical Engineers (ASME), and
American Concrete Institute (ACI),
among others, publish metric
editions of some standards. The
Building Officials and Code
Administrators (BOCA), as well
as the American Society for
Testing and Materials (ASTM) and
the National Fire Protection
Association (NFPA), publish
their documents with dual units
(both metric and inchpound
measurements). In addition, most
handicapped accessibility
standards and a number of
product standards are published
with dual units. The metric
measurements are virtually
exact, soft numerical
conversions that, over time,
will be changed through the
consensus process into rounded
hard metric dimensions. For now,
use the soft metric equivalents.
(3) Convert existing unit
measurements to metric.
Follow the conversion rules
below.
g. Standards, Criteria,
and Product Information. For
organizations that publish
construction standards,
criteria, or product
information: Review all active
documents and follow the
conversion rules below. The
standards referenced in e. and f.
below may be consulted for
additional guidance conversion.
(1) Whenever possible,
convert measurements to rounded,
hard metric numbers. For
instance, if anchor bolts are to
be imbedded to a depth of 10
inches, the exact converted
length of 254 mm might be
rounded to either 250 mm (9.84
inches) or 260 mm (10.24
inches). The less critical the
number, the more rounded it can
be, but ensure that allowable
tolerances or safety factors are
not exceeded. When in doubt,
stick with the exact soft
conversion.
(2) Round to
"preferred" metric
numbers.
(a) The preferred numbers for
the "1 foot = 12
inches" system are, in
order of preference, those
divisible by 12, 6, 4, 3, and 2.
(b) Preferred metric numbers
are, in order, those divisible
by 10, 5, and 2, or decimal
multiples thereof. National
Bureau of Standards (NBS)
Technical Note 990, The
Selection of Preferred Metric
Values for Design and
Construction, explains the
concept of preferred numbers in
detail and states in its
foreword:
It is widely recognized
that a transfer to a metric
technical environment based upon
a soft conversion  that is, no
change other than the
description of the physical
quantities and measurements in
metric units  would cause
considerable longer term
problems and disadvantages due
to the encumbrance of the
resulting awkward numbers. The
overall costs of soft conversion
could greatly outweigh any
savings due to its short term
expediency.
The Technical Note provides a
rational basis for the
evaluation and selection of
preferred numerical values
associated with metric
quantities. Precedent has shown
that the change to metric units
can be accompanied by a change
to preferred values at little or
no extra cost, especially in
specifications, codes,
standards, and other technical
data.NBS Technical Note 990;
The Selection of Preferred
Metric Values for Design and
Construction
(3) Use hand calculators or
software conversion programs
that convert inchpounds to
metric. They are readily
available and are indispensable
to the conversion process.
Simply check with any store or
catalog source that sells
calculators or software.
(4) Be careful with the
decimal marker when converting
areas and volumes; metric
numbers can be significantly
larger than inchpound numbers
(a cubic meter, for instance, is
one billion cubic millimeters).
(5) Use ASTM E621, Standard
Practice For the Use of Metric (SI)
Units in Building Design and
Construction, as a basic
reference.
(6) Follow the rules for
usage, conversion, and rounding
in ASTM E 380, Standard
Practice of Use of the
International System of Units (SI),
Sections 3 and 4; or American
National Standards Institute
(ANSI) 268, Metric Practice,
Sections 3.5 and 4.
Chapter
2
A.
Architectural.
1. Block.
a. Standard sizes are 90,
140, and 190 mm thick, with a
190 x 390 mm face. Normal metric
modular block is 190 x 190 x 390
mm. This nearly equates to 71/2
x 71/2 x 153/8 inches.
American modular block is 194 x
194 x 397 mm, quite similar to
metric block. Stacking nonmortar
joint block is usually 203 x 203
x 406 mm. Hard metric block has
12.5 blocks per m2.
b. Metric block has been
installed on U.S. projects. Some
metric blocks are being supplied
using molds borrowed from
sources that already owned them,
eliminating mold purchase costs.
c. The standard mortar joint
for block is 10 mm.
2. Brick.
a. The "metric modular
brick" is the most common.
Its size is 90 x 57 x 190 mm
(39/16 x 21/4 x 71/2 inches).
Jumbo brick is 90 x 90 x 190 mm.
b. American modular brick is:
(1) 35/8 x 21/4 x 7 5/8
inches (92 x 57 x 194 mm) when a
3/8inch joint is used.
(2) 31/2 x 23/16 x 71/2
inches (89 x 56 x 190 mm) when a
1/2 inch joint is used.
c. Thus the standard American
modular brick used with a
1/2inch joint is so close to
the metric modular brick that it
can be used with only a slight
variation in joint thickness
during field installation.
d. Three vertical courses of
metric modular brick with 10 mm
joints equals 201 mm, which is
rounded to 200. Two jumbo
courses equals 200. Weepholes
are mostly spaced in 100 mm
sizes. (e.g., 600 mm).
Seventyfive modular metric
bricks per m2, 50 metric jumbo
bricks per m2.
e. Metric brick has been used
on U.S. projects. Standard
mortar joint for brick and block
is 10 mm. Brick should be
specified in metric, regardless
of whether ASTM C 216 or ASTM C
62/AASHTO M 114 is used.
3. Carpet.
a. Most firms have the dies
and can or do make metric carpet
tile. Most common sizes are 500
x 500 mm and 600 x 600 mm.
b. Minimum orders are
available (several hundred
square meters or less). As the
industry goes metric, premiums
for minimums will shrink or be
eliminated.
4.
Ceiling Systems.
a. Many domestic
manufacturers regularly make
hard metric tiles and grids for
use in metric projects. Most
common sizes are 600 x 600 mm
and 600 x 1200 mm.
b. Many design and
construction projects, both
renovation and new construction,
are using the 600 x 600 mm
system.
c. Many facilities with 2 x 2
grids are not adversely affected
by use of new 600 x 600 mm
grids.
d. With hard metric ceilings,
room dimensions can be multiples
of 600 mm, giving clean, rounded
dimensions to construction
personnel for layout.
5. Drywall.
a. Only sheet length and
width are classified in hard
metric. The standard sheet width
is 1200 mm. Lengths available
are 2400 mm and several longer
sizes.
b. Thicknesses remain the
same to minimize code impact.
Most architects show these as 13
x 16 mm on drawings, instead of
the exact 12.7 and 15.9 mm.
Standard stud spacing is 400 mm,
as it is the closest to 16
inches and is an even multiple
of the sheet size.
6. Doors.
a. A common metric door size
is 900 x 2100 mm, although 1000
x 2000 mm is sometimes used.
This may be used on metric
projects where other project
specific design criteria are
satisfied.
b. Louvers and glass should
be in hard metric dimensions,
such as 300 x 300 mm, 450 x 450
mm, etc.
c. Door thicknesses will
remain the same, being
identified by the nominal mm
equivalent. Most architects
softconvert door thickness and
are using nominal 45 mm as
standard.
d. Most door frame section
dimensions are being rounded to
the nearest 1 mm (e.g., 13, 25,
41, 50, or 80 mm). Lengths and
widths match hard metric door
sizes and should be hard metric.
(e.g., 900 x 2100 mm)
7.
Elevators.
a. Capacities should be
specified to the next lowest 50
kg. (e.g., 40,000 lb = 18 144
kg). Signage in the elevator
would show 18 100 kg only.
b. Most manufacturers can
make hard metric platforms.
Specifying 50 mm platform sizes
is preferred, but allow standard
English platform sizes to be
submitted. (For example,
5'7" x 7' platform = 1702 x
2134 mm. Specify as 1700 x 2100
mm, but approve the standard
English size) Note: Code and
criteria requirements may
restrict this approach and must
be considered on each project.
c. Speeds should be in
meters/second, shown to two
digits (e.g., 0.64 m/s, 0.51 m/s).
d. Thus, manufacturers supply
standard product, and rounded
numbers appear in specifications
and drawings as well as to the
public.
8. Glass.
a. ASTM C 1036 gives metric
sizes for flat glass, heat
absorbing glass, and wired
glass.
b. Glass shall be specified
in mm only.
c. Thicknesses for Type 1,
Transparent Flat Glass are 1,
1.5, 2, 2.5, 2.7, 3, 4, 5, 5.5,
6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 19, 22, 25,
and 32.
9. Lumber.
a. Two by fourinch is a
nominal size. Neither wood studs
nor other framing lumber will
change in crosssection. A 2 x
4inch piece can be soft
converted to 51 x 102 mm
(nominal) or 38 x 89 mm actual.
The actual dimensions in
millimeters would most commonly
be used.
b. Millimeter dimensions are
frequently used in exact layout
work only, such as layout of
cabinetry, but 2 x 6 and
2 x 10 boards will still be
used.
10.
Plywood.
a. Projects using plywood
should specify metric sheets.
b. Thickness is the same to
minimize production impacts. The
standards are 12.7 and 19.05 mm,
commonly given nominal
thicknesses on drawings (e.g.,
19 mm).
11.
Roofing.
a. Use millimeters squared
for areas.
b. State membrane thickness
in millimeters only.
c. Lap widths should be even
millimeters. (e.g., 100 mm, 150
mm, etc.)
12.
Sheet Metal.
a. Most specification
references use gauge numbers
followed by the decimal inch
thickness.
Example: 22 gauge
(0.034 inch).
b. Metric specifications use
millimeter thickness. It is not
the intent to change the
thickness of currently used
sheeting. The thickness under
"Specify" is thinner
than the actual gauge thickness,
since specifications give
minimum thickness.
The following chart may be
used to specify sheet metal:
Gauge
 Inch
 Exact
mm
 Specify
(< exact) mm
 %
Thinner

32
 0.0134
 0.3404
 0.34
 0.1

30
 0.0157
 0.3988
 0.39
 2.2

28
 0.0187
 0.4750
 0.47
 1.1

26
 0.0217
 0.5512
 0.55
 0.2

24
 0.0276
 0.7010
 0.70
 0.1

22
 0.0336
 0.8534
 0.85
 0.4

20
 0.0396
 1.0058
 1.00
 0.6

18
 0.0516
 1.3106
 1.30
 0.8

16
 0.0635
 1.6129
 1.60
 0.8

14
 0.0785
 1.9939
 1.90
 4.7

12
 0.1084
 2.7534
 2.70
 1.9

10
 0.1382
 3.5103
 3.50
 0.3

8
 0.1681
 4.2697
 4.20
 1.6

This schedule was developed
since no existing material was
found to clearly identify
existing sheeting in metric
units. Until a more efficient
method is developed to address
this issue, specifiers may wish
to retain the gauge number in
specifications, coupling this
with a rounded mm size.
c. For example: Provide
grab bar with a minimum wall
thickness of 18 gauge (0.051
inch) should be replaced
with: Provide grab bar with
minimum wall thickness of 1.3 mm.
Since 18 gauge is thicker than
1.3 mm, 18 gauge is acceptable.
d. Show minimum thickness in
millimeters only. Specifying 1
or 0.1 mm thicknesses wherever
possible. (e.g., 1 mm, 1.6 mm).
Hard metric sheet metal is
obtainable, even in smaller
quantities.
13.
Stone. Stone, such as
granite and marble, should be
specified in hard metric (e.g.,
30 or 50 mm thick, or 100 x
300).
14.
Metal Studs. Common metal
studs are available in the
following nominal mm sizes,
which closely align with the
dimensions in the standard
English sizes: 42, 64, 92, 102,
and 153 mm. A 22 mm hat channel
for furring is also common. both
wood and metal studs are soft
converted and will not change in
actual cross section.
15.
Woodwork. Custom
casework, such as cabinets,
builtin benches, shelves,
security desks, and judges
benches, should be developed in
hard metric to the fullest
degree possible.
a. Cabinets. Many
cabinet widths are shown as
increments of 50 mm. (e.g., 450,
500 mm wide).
b. Lockers. Dimensions
should be furnished in metric
sizes.
B.
Civil Engineering.
1.
Units. The metric units
used in civil and structural
engineering are:
a. meter (m)
b. kilogram (kg)
c. second (s)
d. newton (N)
e. pascal (Pa)
2.
Rules for Civil Engineering.
a. There are separate units
for mass and force.
b. The kilogram (kg) is the
base unit for mass, which is the
unit quantity of matter
independent of gravity.
c. The newton (N) is the
derived unit for force (mass
times acceleration, or kgm/s2).
It replaces the unit
"kilogramforce" (kgf),
which should not be used.
d. The newton meter
designates torque, not the
joule.
e. The pascal (Pa) measures
pressure and stress (Pa=N/m2).
f. Structural calculations
should be shown in MPa or kPa (megapascals
or kilopascals).
g. Plane angles in surveying
(cartography) will continue to
be measured in degrees (either
decimal degrees or degrees,
minutes, and seconds) rather
than the metric radian.
h. Percentages should be used
primarily for long, standing
slopes, while ratios should
generally be used for shorter or
steeper distances. Since both
are basically
"dimensionless"that
is, they refer to each other
instead of a specific standard
of measurementeither could be
used as required. Just remember
to follow current, standard
designating practices regarding
each.
When using percentages,
follow this rule: Percent x
10 = mm/m (vertical distance in
millimeters per horizontal
meter) For example: 2% x 10
= 20 mm/m, and 45% = 450 mm/m.
i. Road construction must be
designed using metric units. For
additional guidance, use the
AASHTO Guide to Metric
Conversion for geometric design
values, lane and shoulder
widths, curb heights, sight
distances, curvatures, and other
values.
TABLE
8
CIVIL
AND STRUCT ENGINEERING
CONVERSION FACTORS
Quantity
 From
InchPound Units
 To Metric
Units

Multiply by

Mass
 lb
kip
 kg
metric ton
 0.453 592
0.453 592

Mass/unit
length
 plf
 kg/m
 1.488 16

Mass/unit
area
 pcf
 kg/m2
 1.482 43

Mass
density
 pcf
 kg/m3
 16.018 5

Force
 lb
kip
 N
kN
 4.448 22
4.448 22

Force/unit
length
 plf
klf
 N/m
kN/m
 14.593 9
14.593 9

Pressure,
stress, modulus of
elasticity
 psf
ksf
psi
ksi
 Pa
kPa
kPa
MPa
 47.880 3
47.880 3
6.894 76
6.894 76

Bending
moment, torque, moment
of force
 ftlb
ftkip
 Nm
kNm
 1.355 82
1.355 82

Moment of
mass
 lbft
 kgm
 0.138 255

Moment of
inertia
 lbft2
 kgm2
 0.042 140
1

Second
moment of area
 in4
 mm4
 416 231

Section
modulus
 in3
 mm3
 16
387.064

NOTE: Underline denotes exact
number.
kip = 1000 lb
metric ton = 1000 kg
C.
Structural Engineering.
1.
Units. The metric units
used in structural engineering
are:
a. meter (m)
b. kilogram (kg)
c. second (s)
d. newton (N)
e. pascal (Pa)
2.
Rules for Structural
Engineering.
a. There are separate units
for mass and force.
b. The kilogram (kg) is the
base unit for mass, which is the
unit quantity of matter
independent of gravity.
c. The newton (N) is the
derived unit for force (mass
times acceleration, or kgm/s2).
It replaces the unit
"kilogramforce" (kgf),
which should not be used.
d. The newton meter
designates torque, not the
joule.
e. The pascal (Pa) measures
pressure and stress (Pa=N/m2).
f. Structural calculations
should be shown in MPa or kPa (megapascals
or kilopascals).
g. Design dimensions must be
rounded. Bar spacing, wall and
slab thickness, and similar
dimensions must be even mm
(e.g., 100, 250, or 400 mm),
not exact conversions (e.g., 305
mm).
h. Structural steel shall be
specified in metric only, such
as 250 MPa. Shapes shall be
specified according to the
millimeter sizes and dimensions
in ASTM A 6M.
i. Wind pressures are given
in Pa, while wind speeds are
most frequently given in m/s.
3.
Structural Strategies.
a. Fasteners. Use ASTM
A 325M and A 490M metric bolts.
There are seven standard metric
bolt sizes, which replace the
nine bolts currently used.
Standard sizes are 16, 20, 22,
24, 27, 30, and 36 mm.
b. Steel.
(1) ASTM A 6/A 6M lists both
inch and mm dimensions of the
shapes.
(2) Another reference is the
International Standards
Organization (ISO) standard for
steel.
c. Floorload.
(1) Calculations are in kPa,
but floorloading can be in
kilograms (kg) per square meter
because many dead and live loads
are given in kg. Use the
following rounded, slightly
conservative, rule: kPa x 100
= kg/m2 (e.g., 5 kPa x 100 = 500
kg/m2)
(2) The chart below gives kPa
strength ratings that can be
used to replace the psf strength
rating.
Previous (psf)
 New (kPa)
 Percent Stronger

50
 2.5
 4.4

80
 4
 1.8

100
 5
 4.4

120
 6
 4.4

150
 7.5
 4.4

200
 10
 4.4

250
 12
 0.2

300
 15
 4.4

350
 17
 1.4

400
 20
 4.4

450
 22
 2.1

500
 24
 0.2

(3) A typical office rating is 5
kPa, with 4 kPa and
1 kPa components. Drawings
and calculations should reflect
these numbers only.
(4) In existing facilities,
the preferred method is to
convert values to exact kPa and
then round to the next lowest
0.1 kPa.
D.
Surveying and Project Layout.
1. Databases of hundreds of
thousands of horizontal and
vertical survey control points
on which U.S. surveys are based
have been completely metric
since 1983. USGS, which produces
topographic maps of terrain
elevations, has digitally mapped
the U.S. surface. The ground
distance between each pair of
digitized points is 30 meters.
Thus, survey and mapping data
needed to do metric design and
construction in the United
States is available.
2. The following information
can be used as guidance on how
site plans and topographic maps
are to be executed:
a. Contour intervals utilize
either 1000, 500, or 250 mm as
contour intervals, depending on
site slope.
b. Elevation measurements are
given in mm.
c. Benchmark elevations are
converted from feet to mm.
3. Examples:
a. Benchmark is 314.15 feet.
Convert to 95 753
b. Sample Finished Floor
Elevation: 105 025
c. Sample Top of Curb: TC 305
224
d. Sample Bottom of Curb: BC
305 024
e. Sample Contour Lines:
106
000
105
500
4. Large mapping scales use
metric symbols. 1:2000 is
written as 1:2k, 1:5,000,000,,
as 1:5M. Contour lines may also
be given in meters.
5. Electronic surveying and
mapping equipment provides data
in metric squared units. Many
states utilize electronic data
measurement (EDM) equipment,
which almost always can work in
metric units.
6. Plane angles in surveying
(cartography) will continue to
be measured in degrees (either
decimal degrees or degrees,
minutes, and seconds) rather
than the metric radian.
7. Percentages should be used
primarily for long, standing
slopes, while ratios should
generally be used for shorter or
steeper distances. Since both
are basically dimensionless
that is, they refer to each
other instead of a specific
standard of measurementeither
could be used as required. Just
remember to follow current,
standard designating practices
regarding each. When using
percentages, follow this rule: Percent
x 10 = mm/m (vertical distance
in millimeters per horizontal
meter) For example: 2% x 10
= 20 m/m, and 45% = 450 mm/m.
E.
Materials Guidance (General).
1.
Concrete.
a. Concrete strength is
specified throughout the country
in MPa. The following strengths
should be used in metric
construction. The general
purpose concrete strengths are
reduced from 6 strengths to 4
strengths. Strengths above 35
MPa should be specified in 5 MPa
intervals (40, 45, 50, 55,
etc.).
Previous psi
 Exact Conversion MPa
 Specify MPa

2 500
3 000
3 500
4 000
4 500
5 000
 17.23
20.67
24.12
27.56
31.01
34.45
 20
20 or 25*
25
30
35
35

*If code requires 3000 psi, then
25 MPa should be used;
otherwise, it is a professional
judgment on whether to use 20 or
25. Refer to the PSI versus
MPa chart in the Graphic
Standards Book.
b. ACI 318M, metric version,
should now be used.
c. Slump Limits on metric
projects always use 10 or 5 mm
increments (e.g., 75, 80, or 90
mm).
2.
Concrete Pipe.
a. ACPA 5.0 states that
concrete pipe can now be
specified using hard metric ASTM
and AASHTO standards.
b. Reinforced concrete pipe (RCP)
is specified as ASTM
C 76M/AASHTO M 170M.
c. ASTM C76 RCP meets the
hard metric standard, since
tolerances were set in the hard
metric standard to accept
current product.
d. For nonreinforced concrete
pipe, sizes are as follows:
C 76M
sizes
(mm)
 300
 375
 450
 525
 675
 750
 825
 900
 1050

1200
 1350
 1500
 1650
 1800
 1950
 2100
 2250
 2400

C 14M
sizes
 100
 150
 200
 250
 300
 375
 450
 525
 600

675
 750
 825
 900






3. Geotechnical.
Geotechnical reports shall be
metric units only and, equally
important, shall be in rounded
metric units. Bearing and side
friction values shall be in MPa,
rounded to 1 or 0.1 MPa
increments wherever possible.
4. Reinforcement.
a. Metric projects will use
ASTM A 615M reinforcing bars for
general purpose applications.
The A 615M reinforcing bar comes
in Grades 300 and 400,
indicating 300 and 400 MPa yield
strength.
b.There are 8 bar sizes,
which replace the 11 bar sizes
currently used, as listed below:
Size
 Diam (mm)
 Area (mm2)

Size
 Diam (mm)
 Area (mm2)

3
4
5
 9.52
12.70
15.87
 71
129
200
 10M
15M
20M
 11.3
16.0
19.5
 100
200
300

6
7
8
 19.05
22.22
25.40
 284
387
510
 25M
30M
35M
 25.2
29.9
35.7
 500
700
1000

9
10
11
 28.65
32.25
35.81
 645
819
1006
 45M
55M
 43.7
56.4
 1500
2500

14
18
 43.00
57.32
 1452
2581




c. Some applications may need
A 616M, A 617M, A 706M, or
A 775M. Note that a nominal
15 mm bar is called a
"Number 15 bar."
5.
Pipe. Steel pipe and
copper tube sizes will not now
change, since American sizes are
still used in many parts of the
world. Designate tube sizes by
nominal mm size. Hard metric
pipe sizing may be used in the
future. ASTM B 88M provides
standard hard metric copper tube
sizes. During the transition to
metric units, the following
paragraph and chart should be
placed on the mechanical cover
sheet:
"ALL SIZES ARE
INDUSTRYSTANDARD ASTM A 53 PIPE
AND ASME B 88 TUBE DESIGNATED BY
THEIR NOMINAL MILLIMETER (mm)
DIAMETER EQUIVALENT. SEE CHART
BELOW."
Nominal
Size

Inch
 mm

1/2
 15

3/4
 20

1
 25

11/4
 32

11/2
 40

2
 50

21/2
 65

3
 80

31/2
 90

4
 100

5
 125

6
 150

6.
General Fasteners.
a. U.S. industry is now using
metric fasteners extensively.
b. The Thomas Register lists
hundreds of firms under Metric
Fasteners, Metric Screws, and
Metric Bolts. The Industrial
Fasteners Institute (IFI) has
guides for fastener types and
producers.
c. Many pieces of mechanical
and electrical equipment already
use both metric and English
fasteners. Metric fasteners use
M numbers. (For example, M10 x
40 is a nominal 10 mm diameter
and 40 mm length.)
d. Metric socket head cap
screws, set screws, hex bolts,
and similar items are available.
7. Anchor
Bolts. Metric anchor bolts
(e.g., L, J and U bolts) are
available. ASTM F 568 gives
metric chemical and mechanical
data for carbon steel anchor
bolts and studs, and also
references ANSI dimensional
standards.
a. ISO Metric Grades.
As given in ISO 898 and ASTM F
568, ISO metric grades should be
used. Many anchor bolts are made
from low carbon steel grades,
such as ISO classes 4.6, 4.8,
and 5.8.
b. Preferred Diameters.
Preferred nominal diameters for
items such as anchor bolts and
threaded rod are as shown below.
Reference individual standards
prior to specification. Sizes
are given between M5 and M45, as
these are commonly used in
construction.
1: M5 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 30
36 42
2: M14 18 22 27 33 39 45
3: M45 7 9 11 15 17 25 26 28
32 35 38 40
8.
Fastener Data. Tables 9
and 10 provide much of the data
available for different metric
fasteners.
TABLE
9
FASTENER
DATA

Basic Product

Product Type and
Head Style

Size Range

For Dimensions
Refer to:
 For Mechanical and/or
Performance Properties
Refer To:


Metric
Bolts
 hex
 M5M100
 ANSI/ASME B18.2.3.5M

ASTM F #568
ASTM F#486M
ASTM F #738

heavy hex
 M12M36
 ANSI/ASME B18.2.3.6M

round head short
square neck (carriage)
 M8M20
 ANSI/ASME B18.5.2.1M

round head square neck
(carriage)
 M5M24
 ANSI/ASME B18.5.2.2M

bent
 M5 and larger
 IFI 528

heavy hex structural
 M12M36
 ANSI/ASME B18.2.3.7M
 ASTM A#325M
ASTM A#490M

hex transmission tower
 M16M24
 IFI 541
 IFI 541






Metric
Screws
 hex cap
 M5M100
 ANSI/ASME B18.2.3.1M

ASTM F#568
ASTM F#468M
ASTM F#738

formed hex
 M5M24
 ANSI/ASME B18.2.3.2M

heavy hex
 M12M36
 ANSI/ASME B18.2.3.3M

hex flange
 M5M16
 ANSI/ASME B18.2.3.4M

heavy hex flange
 M10M20
 ANSI/ASME B18.2.3.9M

hex lag
 524mm
 ANSI/ASME B18.2.3.8M
 see note 3


Metric
Studs
 double end
 M5M100
 IFI 528
 ASTM F#568
ASTM F#468M
ASTM F#736

continuous thread
 M5M100


Metric
Locking Screws
 prevailing torque,
nonmetallic insert
 M1.6M36
 see note 3
 IFI 524

chemical coated
 M6M20
 see note 3
 IFI 525


Metric
Socket Screws
 socket head cap
 M1.6M48
 ANSI/ASME B 18.3.1M
 ASTM A#574M F#837M

socket head shoulder
 6.525mm
 ANSI/ASME B 18.3.3M
 ASTM
F#835M
ASTM A#574M
ASTM F#879M

socket button head cap
 M3M16
 ANSI/ASME B18.3.4M

socket countersunk
head cap
 M3M20
 ANSI/ASME B18.3.5M

socket set
 1.624mm
 ANSI/ASME B18.3.6M
 ANSI/ASME B.18.3.6M
ASTM F#912M
ASTM F#880M

Metric
Nuts
 hex, style 1
 M1.6M36
 ANSI/ASME B18.2.4.1M
 ASTM
A#563M
ASTM F#467M
ASTM F#836M
ASTM A#194M

hex, style 2
 M3M36
 ANSI/ASME B18.2.4.2M

slotted hex
 M5M36
 ANSI/ASME B18.2.4.3M

hex flange
 M5M20
 ANSI/ASME B18.2.4.4M

hex jam
 M5M36
 ANSI/ASME B18.2.4.5M

heavy hex
 M12M100
 ANSI/ASME B18.2.4.6M






Metric
PrevailingTorque Nuts
 hex, steel
 M3M36
 ANSI/ASME
B18.16.3M
 ANSI/ASME
B18.16.1M
ANSI/ASME B18.16.2M

hex flange, steel
 M6M20

a. When only the property
class number is shown, the class
is standard in both ISO and ASTM
documents. Properties specified
in each are identical except for
minor exceptions. Where
differences exist, the F 568
values are given.
b. To compute the proof load,
yield strength, or tensile
strength in kilonewtons for a
bolt, screw, or stud, divide the
stress value, MPa as given in
Table 10, for the property class
by 1000 and multiply this answer
by the tensile stress area of
the product's screw thread as
given in Table 9.
c. In general, identification
markings are located on the top
of the head and preferably are
raised.
d. Class 5.8 products are
available in lengths 150 mm and
less.
e. Caution is advised when
considering the use of Class
12.9 products. The capabilities
of the fastener manufacturer, as
well as the anticipated service
environment, should be carefully
considered. Some environments
may cause stress corrosion
cracking of nonplated as well as
electroplated products.
TABLE
10
MECHANICAL
REQUIREMENTS FOR CARBON
STEEL
EXTERNALLY
THREADED FASTENERS 
METRIC SERIES

Property
Class
Designation
 Nominal
Size of Product
 Material
and
Treatment
 Mechanical
Requirements
 Property
Class
Ident. Marking

Proof Load
Stress,
MPa
 Yield
Strength,
MPa, Min
 Tensile
Strength, MPa, Min
 Prod.
Hardness, Rockwell

Surface
Max
 Core

Min
 Max

4.6
 M5M100
 low or medium carbon
steel
 225
 240
 400
 
 B67
 B95
 4.6

4.8
 M1.6M16
 low or medium carbon
steel, fully or
partially annealed
 310
 340
 420
 
 B71
 B95
 4.8

5.8
 M5M24
 low or medium carbon
steel, cold worked
 380
 420
 520
 
 B82
 B95
 5.8

8.8
 M16M72
 medium
carbon steel; the
product is quenched and
tempered
 600
 660
 830
 30N56
 C23
 C34
 8.8

A325M
Type 1
 M16M36
 A325M
8S

8.8
 M16M36
 low carbon
boron steel; the product
is quenched and
tempered
 600
 660
 830
 30N56
 C23
 C34
 8.8

A325M
Type 2
 A325M
8S

A325M
Type 3
 M16M36
 atmospheric
corrosion resistant
steel; the product is
quenched and
tempered
 600
 660
 830
 30N56
 C23
 C34
 A325M
8S3

9.8
 M1.6M16
 medium carbon steel;
the product is quenched
and tempered
 650
 720
 900
 30N58
 C27
 C36
 9.8

9.8
 M1.6M16
 low carbon boron
steel; the product is
quenched and
tempered
 650
 720
 900
 30N58
 C27
 C36
 9.8

10.9
 M5M20
 medium carbon boron
steel; the
product is quenched
and tempered
 830
 940
 1040
 30N59
 C33
 C39
 10.9

10.9
 M5M100
 medium
carbon alloy steel; the
product is quenched and
tempered
 830
 940
 1040
 30N59
 C33
 C39
 10.9

A490M
Type 1
 M12M36
 A490M
10S

10.9
 M5M36
 low carbon
boron steel; the product
is quenched and tempered
 830
 940
 1040
 30N59
 C33
 C39
 10.9

A490M
Type 2
 M12M36
 A490M
10S

A490M
Type 3
 M12M36
 atmospheric corrosion
resistant steel; the
product is quenched and
tempered
 830
 940
 1040
 30N59
 C33
 C39
 A490M
10S3

12.9
 M1.6M1000
 alloy steel; the
product is quenched
and tempered
 970
 1100
 1220
 30N63
 C38
 C44
 12.9

F.
Electrical Engineering.
1.
Units. The metric units
used in electrical engineering
and their symbols are shown
below:
meter (m)
second (s)
candela (cd)
radian (rad)
steradian(sr)
ampere (A)
coulomb (C)
volt (V)
farad (F)
henry (H)
ohm ()
siemens (S)
watt (W)
hertz (Hz)
weber (Wb)
tesla (T)
lumen (lm)
lux (lx)
TABLE
11
METRIC
UNITS USED IN CONSTRUCTION
(ELECTRICAL)
QUANTITY
 UNIT
 SYMBOL

length
 meter, millimeter
 m, mm

frequency
 hertz
 Hz

power
 watt, kilowatt
 W, kW

energy
 megajoule, kilowatt
hour
 MJ, kWh

electric current
 ampere
 A

electric potential
 volt, kilovolt
 V, kV

resistance
 ohm


2.
Rules for Electrical
Engineering.
a. The only unit change for
electrical engineering is the
renaming of conductance from
"mho" to siemens (S).
b. The lux (lx) is the unit
for illuminance and replaces
lumen per square foot and
footcandle.
c. Luminance is expressed in
candela per square meter (cd/m2)
and replaces candela per square
foot, footlambert, and lambert.
3.
Conversion Factors. Table
12 identifies the conversion
factors unique to electrical
engineering.
TABLE
12
ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING CONVERSION FACTORS
QUANTITY
 FROM INCHPOUND UNITS
 TO METRIC UNITS
 MULTIPLY BY

Power, radiant flux
 W
 W
 1 (same unit)

Radiant intensity
 W/sr
 W/sr
 1 (same unit)

Radiance
 W/(srm2)
 W/(srm2)
 1 (same unit)

Irradiance
 W/m2
 W/m2
 1 (same unit)

Frequency
 Hz
 Hz
 1 (same value)

Electric current
 A
 A
 1 (same unit)

Electric charge
 Ahr
 C
 3600

Electric potential
 V
 V
 1 (same unit)

Capacitance
 F
 F
 1 (same unit)

Inductance
 H
 H
 1 (same unit)

Resistance


 1 (same unit)

Conductance
 mho
 S
 100

Magnetic flux
 maxwell
 Wb
 108

Mag. flux density
 gamma
 T
 109

Luminous intensity
 cd
 cd
 1 (same unit)

Luminance
 lambert
cd/ft2
footlambert
 kcd/m2
cd/m2
cd/m2
 3.183 01
10.763 9
3.426 26

Luminous flux
 lm
 lm
 1 (same unit)

Illuminance
 footcandle
 lx
 10.763 9

NOTE: Underline denotes exact
number.
4. Conduit.
Conduit will not change size in
metric. It will be classified by
a nominal mm size. The following
paragraph and chart may be
placed on the electrical drawing
sheet.
"ALL CONDUIT SIZES ARE
INDUSTRYSTANDARD ENGLISHSIZE
CONDUIT DESIGNATED BY THEIR
ROUNDED NOMINAL MILLIMETER (mm)
DIAMETER EQUIVALENT. SEE CHART
BELOW."
Nominal
Size

Inch
 mm

1/2
 15

3/4
 20

1
 25

11/4
 32

11/2
 40

2
 50

21/2
 65

3
 80

31/2
 90

4
 100

5
 125

6
 150

5.
Cabling. Metric sizes are
available.
a. Projects with medium and
larger wire requirements may
wish to start using
international sizes, where
permitted by governing codes and
criteria.
b. ASTM B 682 gives metric
sizes. Common sizes (in mm2)
are, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2.5, 4,
6, 10, 16, 25, 35, 50, 70, 95,
120, 150, 185, 240, and 300.
c. Many projects have begun
to refer to existing sizes by
millimeter squared dimensions to
become familiar with the
millimeter squared scale. On the
chart below are millimeter
squared equivalents with
detailed rounding. In some
cases, rounding to the nearest
0.1, 1, or more square
millimeters may be feasible. Use
professional judgment.
AWG
 mm2

 kcm
 mm2

22
 0.506

 250
 126.68

20
 0.517

 300
 152.01

18
 0.82

 350
 177.35

16
 1.31

 400
 202.68

14
 2.08

 450
 228.0

12
 3.31

 500
 253.4

10
 5.26

 550
 278.7

9
 6.6

 600
 304.0

8
 8.37

 650
 329.4

7
 10.6

 700
 354.7

6
 13.30

 750
 380.0

5
 16.8

 800
 405.4

4
 21.15

 900
 456.0

3
 26.66

 1000
 506.7

2
 33.63

 1100
 557.4

1
 42.41

 1200
 608.1

1/0
 53.48

 1250
 633.4

2/0
 67.44

 1300
 658.7

3/0
 85.03

 1400
 709.4

4/0
 107.2

 1500
 760.1



 1600
 810.7



 1700
 861.4








 1800
 912.1



 1900
 962.7



 2000
 1013.4

6.
Fiber Optics. Most cables
are made to metric dimensions,
so these will be specified in
hard metric (e.g., 125 m fiber
cable). Illumination levels are
in lux (lx).
7.
Lighting Fixtures. Use
hard metric fixture sizes for
layin type. Common sizes are
600 x 600 mm and 600 x 1 200 mm.
Use the 600 x 600 mm size with
sockets on one end wherever
possible as it is easier to
manufacture in hard metric. Use
either a compact tube or a T8
Utube for higher efficiency.
G.
Mechanical Engineering.
1.
Units. The metric units
used in mechanical engineering
are listed below.
meter (m)
kilogram (kg)
second (s)
joule (J)
watt (W)
kelvin (K) or degree
Celsius (C)
pascal (Pa)
radian (rad)
newton (N)
TABLE 13 METRIC
UNITS USED IN CONSTRUCTION
Quantity
 Unit
 Symbol

length
 meter, millimeter
 m, mm

volume
 cubic meter
 m3

capacity
 liter (1000 cm3)
 L

velocity
 meter/second
 m/s

volume flow
 cubic meter/second
liter/second
 m3/s
L/s

temperature
 degree Celsius
 C

force
 newton, kilonewton
 N, kN

pressure
 kilopascal
 kPa

energy, work
 kilojoule, megajoule
 kJ, MJ

rate of heat flow
 watt, kilowatt
 W, kW

2.
Rules For Mechanical
Engineering.
a. The joule (J) is the unit
for energy, work, and quantity
of heat. It is equal to a newton
meter (Nm) and a watt second
(Ws), and it replaces inchpound
units, such as ftlbf.
b. The watt (W) is both the
inchpound and metric unit for
power and heat flow. It replaces
horsepower, foot poundforce per
hour, Btu per hour, calorie per
minute, and ton of
refrigeration.
c. Moisture movement is
expressed by the terms
"vapor permeance" and
"vapor permeability."
d. The inchpound unit
"perm" continues to
represent the degree of
retardation of moisture
movement. The lower the value,
the greater the retardation.
e. The newton (N) is the
derived unit for force (mass
times acceleration, or (kgm/s2).
It replaces the unit
"kilogramforce" (kgf),
which should not be used.
3.
General Guidelines.
a. Temperature. Use
Celsius for temperature
measurements in new or
modernization building projects.
Renovation projects where the
entire HVAC system is not to be
renovated may retain Fahrenheit.
b. Air Distribution.
Use a hard metric ceiling grid
accompanied by hard metric
layin diffusers and registers
or smaller ones that are cut in.
c. Ductwork.
Rectangular metal ductwork is a
custommade product. Hard metric
sizes are easier to measure
(e.g., 300 x 600 mm).
Prefabricated flexible round
duct is specified in soft
converted sizes.
4.
Conversion. Table 14
below provides the conversion
factors needed to adjust current
plans to metric standards.
TABLE
14
MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING CONVERSION FACTORS
Quantity
 From
InchPound Units
 To
Metric Units

Multiply By

Mass/area (density)
 lb/ft2
 kg/m2
 4.882 428

Temperature
 F
 oC
 5/9 (F32)

Energy, work, quantity
of heat
 kWh
Btu
ftlbf
 MJ
J
J
 3.6
1 055.056
1.355 82

Power
 ton (refrig.)
Btu/s
hp (electric)
Btu/h
 kW
kW
W
W
 3.517
1.055 056
745.700
0.293 071

Heat flux
 Btu/(f2h)
 W/m2
 3.152 481

Rate of heat flow
 Btu/s
Btu/h
 kW
W
 1.055 056
0.293 071 1

Thermal conductivity (k
value)
 Btu/(fthF)
 W/(mK)
 1.730 73

Thermal conductance (U
value)
 Btu/(ft2hF)
 W/(m2K)
 5.678 263

Thermal resistance (R
value)
 (ft2hF)/Btu
 (m2K)/W
 0.176 110

Heat capacity, entropy
 Btu/F
 kJ/K
 1.899 1

Specific heat
capacity, specific
entropy
 Btu/(lbF)
 kJ/(kgK)
 4.186 8

Specific energy,
latent heat
 Btu/lb
 kJ/kg
 2.326

Vapor permeance
 perm (23 C)
 ng/(Pasm2)
 57.452 5

Vapor permeability
 perm/in
 ng/(Pasm)
 1.459 29

Volume rate of flow
 ft3/s
cfm
cfm
 m3/s
m3/s
L/s
 0.025 316 8
0.000 471 947 4
0.471 947 4

Velocity, speed
 ft/s
 m/s
 0.304 8

Acceleration
 ft/s2
 m/s2
 0.304 8

Momentum
 lbft/sec
 kgm/s
 0.138 255 0

Angular momentum
 lbft2/s
 kgm2/s
 0.042 140 11

Plane angle
 degree
 rad
mrad
 0.017 453 3
17.453 3

NOTE: Underline denotes exact
number.
5.
Heating, Ventilating, &
Air Conditioning (HVAC). Air
flow out of registers and
diffusers should be rounded to
even increments of 5 or 10 L/s
wherever possible.
a. Ductwork (Round, Rigid).
Most designers are showing hard
metric diameters (e.g., 250, 300
mm).
b. Ductwork (Round,
Flexible). Many designers
are showing flexible round duct
in hard metric sizes but are
accepting soft metric during
construction (e.g., 200 or 250
mm).
c. Ductwork (Rectangular).
Use 50 and 100 mm sizes (e.g.,
500 x 1000, 250 x 350) unless
not possible.
6. Pipes.
a. Steel pipe, ASTM A 53,
will not physically change. Pipe
is classified by nominal mm
sizes.
b. ASTM B 88 M hard metric
copper tube sizes are available.
c. Schedule designations
remain the same (e.g., Schedule
40, and type K, L, and M).
d. 18 mm may be used for 5/8
inch. All other designations
remain the same.
e. The paragraph and chart
below may be placed on the
mechanical drawing sheet.
"ALL SIZES ARE
INDUSTRYSTANDARD ASTM A 53 PIPE
AND ASTM B 88 TUBE DESIGNATED BY
THEIR NOMINAL MILLIMETER (mm)
DIAMETER EQUIVALENT. SEE CHART
BELOW."
Nominal
Size

 Nominal
Size

 Nominal
Size

Inch
 mm

 Inch
 mm

 Inch
 mm

1/2
 15

 2
 50

 5
 125

3/4
 20

 21/2
 65

 6
 150

1
 25

 3
 80

 8
 200

11/4
 32

 31/2
 90

 10
 250

11/2
 40

 4
 100

 12
 300

7. Schedules.
1. Flow rates, pressures,
thermal powers, and other metric
criteria on schedules should be
rounded wherever possible. The
one percent analysis provides a
useful technique.
a. Example 1: A fan
flow rate converts to 8,022 L/s.
1% is +/ 80.22 L/s. This fan
could possibly be shown as
minimum 8000 L/s (8 m3/s) and is
easier to utilize.
b. Example 2: A pump
flow converts to 75.7 L/s. One
percent of this is 0.757 L/s.
Therefore, 75 L/s could possibly
be used.
2. It is important to note
that, in some cases, codes or
design criteria may not allow
this liberty. In other cases,
however, 2 or 3% analyses may be
feasible, using your
professional judgement.
8.
Temperature.
a. Mechanical schedule
temperatures, design
temperatures, leaving and
entering temperatures, and
others shall be stated in even
Celsius (e.g., 5, 12, 25, and 40
degrees C) unless this is not
feasible.
b. Construction projects
shall use Celsius only.
Renovation projects where new
control systems are being
installed should also use
Celsius.
c. HVAC calculations shall be
in metric.
d. Thermal ratings for
boilers and chillers should be
specified in even nominal MW or
kW increments (e.g., 2100 kW, 2
MW).
APPENDIX
1
GLOSSARY OF TERMS
Glossary of Terms
B
basic module: The
fundamental unit of size in the
systems of coordination in
metric building construction:
100 mm (similar to inches in the
inchpound system).
base units: In the
metric system, the meter
(length), kilogram (mass),
second (time), kelvin
(thermodynamic temperature),
ampere (electric current), and
candela (luminous intensity).
The mole is also a base unit,
but it a physics term and has no
application in BLM work.
D
digit: One of the ten
Arabic numerals (09).
degree Celsius:
Related directly to
thermodynamic temperature (kelvins).
Unit of temperature. Zero
degrees Celsius is equivalent to
32 degrees Fahrenheit (the
freezing point of water) and 100
degrees Celsius is equivalent to
212 degrees Fahrenheit (the
boiling point of water). A
Celsius degree is 1.8 times
larger than a Fahrenheit degree.
derived units: Units
that are formed from base units,
supplementary units, and other
derived units, e.g., meters per
second (m/s).
dimensional coordination:
Special dimensional preferences
for buildings and building
products. In metric dimensional
coordination, a common set of
preferred dimensions is used to
establish the geometry of a
building as well as the sizes of
constituent components or
assemblies. Also called modular
coordination.
dual dimensions: The
expression of dimensions in both
customary and metric units of
measure.
H
hard conversion:
Changing the actual size of a
product so that its measurements
are in rounded metric sizes.
I
inchpound measurement
system: The foot, pound,
gallon, degree Fahrenheit system
used in the U.S.
inframodular size: A
selected dimension smaller than
the basic module (100 mm).
intermodular size: A
selected dimension larger than
the basic module (100 mm) but
not a whole multiple of the
module.
K
kilogram: Base unit of
mass (weight). Symbol: kg. The
kilogram is equal to 1000 grams
and is approximately 2.2 pounds.
L
liter: Unit of volume
or capacity used mainly to
measure quanti ties of liquid or
gaseous materials. It is equal
to a cubic decimeter. Symbol: L.
The liter is 6 percent larger
than a quart. A smaller unit is
the milliliter (mL), which is
1/1000 of a liter.
M
meter: The base unit
of length. Symbol: m. The meter
is equiv alent to 39.37 inches.
Smaller units are the centimeter
(cm), which is 1/100 of a meter
(a little less than 1/2 inch),
and the millimeter (mm) which is
1/1000 of a meter (a little more
than 1/32 inch.) The kilometer
(km) is a larger unit and is
equal to 0.62 mile.
metrication: The
process of converting to the
metric system.
N
nominal value: A value
assigned for the purpose of
convenient designation; existing
in name only.
P
preferred multimodular
dimension: A selected
multiple of the basic module of
100 mm.
R
rounded metric sizes:
Sizes expressible in simple
numbers based on nondecimal
multiples of 1000, 100, 50, 20,
10, 5, 2, and 1 in order.
Examples are 500 g, 1 kg, 2 kg,
500 ml, 1 L, 5 L, etc.
S
SI: Abbreviation for
the modern metric system, the
International System of Units
(from the French, Systeme
International
d'Unites). It evolved from
the original French metric
system and is currently being
used virtually worldwide.
significant digit: Any
digit that is necessary to
define a value or quantity.
soft conversion: The
translation of customary unit
measurements to their equivalent
values in metric units.
supplementary units:
The second class of metric units
in the metric system. Units
added to the system to enhance
its capabilities. There are two
units: radian (angles in one
plane) and steradian
(threedimensional angles).
APPENDIX
2
CONVERSION TABLES
TO CONVERT
 MULTIPLY BY
 TO OBTAIN

acres
 4.047 x 101
4.047 x 103
1.562 x 103
4.840 x 103
 hectares
sq. meters
sq. miles
sq. yards

atmospheres
 7.348 x 103
1.058
1.033 x 104
1.033
7.6 x 102
 tons/sq. inch
tons/sq. foot
kgs./sq. meter
kgs./sq. cm
mm of mercury (0 C)

acrefeet
 4.356 x 104
1.234 x 103
3.259 x 105
 cubic feet
cubic meters
gallons

bars
 9.869 x 101
1.0 x 106
1.020 x 104
 atmospheres
dynes/sq. cm
kgs./sq. meter

btu
 1.041 x 101
1.055 x 103
2.928 x 104
 literatmosphere
joules
kilowatthours

btu/min
 2.356 x 102
1.757 x 102
 horsepower
kilowatts

candle/sq. cm
 3.146
 lamberts

candle/sq. in
 4.870 x 101
 lamberts

cubic feet
 2.832 x 102
2.832 x 101
 cubic meters
liters

cubic ft/min
 4.720 x 101
 liters/sec

cubic inches
 1.639 x 105
1.639 x 102
 cubic meters
liters

cubic meters
 6.102 x 104
3.531 x 101
1.308
1.000 x 103
 cubic inches
cubic feet
cubic yards
liters

cubic yards
 7.646 x 101
7.646 x 102
 cubic meters
liters

cubic yds/min
 1.274 x 101
 liters/sec

dynes/sq. cm
 9.869 x 107
2.953 x 105
1.020 x 106
 atmospheres
in. of mercury (0C)
kilograms

ergs
 7.376 x 108
1.000 x 107
2.773 x 1011
 footpounds
joules
kilowatthours

fathoms
 1.8288
 meters

feet
 3.048 x 102
3.048 x 101
3.048 x 104
 millimeters
meters
kilometers

feet/min
 1.829 x 102
3.048 x 101
1.136 x 102
 kilometers/hour
meters/min
miles/hour

feet/sec
 3.048 x 101
1.097
1.829 x 101
 centimeters/sec
kilometers/hour
meters/min

foot candle
 1.076 x 101
 lumen/sq meter (lux)

footpounds
 1.286 x 103
1.356
3.766 x 107
 btu
joules
kilowatthours

footlbs/min
 3.030 x 105
2.260 x 105
 horsepower
kilowatts

footlbs/sec
 1.818 x 103
1.356 x 103
 horsepower
kilowatts

gallons
 3.785 x 103
3.785
 cubic meters
liters

gallons/min
 2.228 x 103
6.308 x 102
 cubic feet/sec
liters/sec

gausses
 1.0 x 104
 webers/sq meter

grams
 9.807 x 105
9.807 x 103
2.205 x 103
 joules/cm
joules/meter (newton)
pounds

hectares
 2.471
1.076 x 105
 acres
square feet

horsepower
 4.244 x 101
7.457 x 101
 btu/min
kilowatts

hp (boiler)
 3.352 x 104
9.803
 btu/hour
kilowatts

hphours
 2.547 x 103
2.684 x 106
7.457 x 101
 btu
joules
kilowatthours

inches
 2.540 x 101
2.540 x 102
 millimeters
meters

inches of mercury
 3.342 x 102
3.453 x 102
 atmospheres
kilograms/sq. meter

joules
 9.486 x 104
1.020 x 101
 btu
kilogrammeters

kilograms
 9.807
2.2046
 joules/meter (newton)
pounds

kilograms/sq cm
 9.678 x 101
2.048 x 103
1.422 x 101
 atmospheres
pounds/sq foot
pounds/sq inch

kilograms/sq meter
 9.678 x 105
2.048 x 101
1.422 x 103
 atmospheres
pounds/sq foot
pounds/sq inch

kilogrammeters
 9.296 x 103
7.233
9.807
2.723 x 106
 btu
footpounds
joules
kilowatthours

kilometers
 3.281 x 103
1.094 x 103
6.214 x 101
 feet
yards
miles (statute)

kilowatts
 5.692 x 101
4.426 x 104
1.341
 btu/min
footlbs/min
horsepower

kilowatthours
 3.413 x 103
2.655 x 106
3.6 x 106
 btu
footpounds
joules

lamberts
 3.183 x 101
2.054
 candles/sq cm
candles/sq inch

liters
 1.000 x 103
3.531 x 102
6.102 x 101
1.308 x 103
2.642 x 101
2.113
1.057
 cubic centimeters
cubic feet
cubic inches
cubic yards
gallons (U.S.)
pints (U.S.)
quarts (U.S.)

liters/min
 5.886 x 104
4.403 x 103
 cubic ft/sec
gallons/sec

lumen
 7.958 x 102
 spherical candle pwr

lumen/sq foot
 1.076 x 101
 lumen/sq meter

lux
 9.29 x 102
 footcandles

meters
 5.468 x 101
3.281
3.937 x 101
5.400 x 104
6.214 x 104
1.094
 fathoms
feet
inches
miles (nautical)
miles (statute)
yards

meters/min
 1.667
5.468 x 102
6.0 x 102
3.728 x 102
 centimeters/sec
feet/sec
kilometers/hour
miles/hour

meters/sec
 1.968 x 102
3.6
2.237
 feet/minute
kilometers/hour
miles/hour

miles (nautical)
 6.076 x 103
1.852
1.1516
2.0254 x 103
 feet
kilometers
miles (statute)
yards

miles (statute)
 1.6093
8.684 x 101
 kilometers
miles (nautical)

miles/hour
 8.8 x 101
1.467
1.6093
2.682 x 101
 feet/minute
feet/second
kilometers/hour
meters/minute

millimeters
 3.281 x 103
3.937 x 102
 feet
inches

ounces (avdp)
 2.835 x 101
6.25 x 102
9.115 x 101
 grams
pounds
ounces (troy)

ounces (fluid)
 1.805
2.957 x 102
 cubic inches
liters

ounces (troy)
 3.1103 x 101
1.097
8.333 x 102
 grams
ounces (avdp)
pounds (troy)

pints (dry)
 3.36 x 101
5.0 x 101
5.506 x 101
 cubic inches
quarts
liters

pints (liquid)
 1.671 x 102
2.887 x 101
4.732 x 104
4.732 x 101
 cubic feet
cubic inches
cubic meters
liters

pounds (avdp)
 4.536 x 102
4.448
4.536 x 101
1.458 x 101
1.215
 grams
joules/meter (newton)
kilograms
ounces (troy)
pounds (troy)

pounds (troy)
 3.7324 x 102
1.3166 x 101
1.2 x 101
8.2286 x 101
3.7324 x 104
 grams
ounces (avdp)
ounces (troy)
pounds (avdp)
tons (metric)

pounds of water
 1.602 x 102
1.198 x 101
 cubic feet
gallons

pounds/cubic foot
 1.602 x 102
1.602 x 101
5.787 x 104
 grams/cubic cm
kilograms/cu meter
pounds/cubic inch

pounds/cubic inch
 2.768 x 101
2.768 x 104
1.728 x 103
 grams/cubic cm
kilograms/cu meter
pounds/cubic foot

pounds/sq. foot
 4.725 x 104
1.414 x 102
4.882
6.944 x 103
 atmospheres
inches of mercury
kilograms/sq meter
pounds/sq inch

pounds/sq. inch
 6.804 x 102
2.036
7.031 x 102
1.44 x 102
 atmospheres
inches of mercury
kilograms/sq meter
pounds/sq inch

quarts (dry)
 6.72 x 101
 cubic inches

quarts (liquid)
 5.775 x 101
9.464 x 104
1.238 x 103
9.463 x 101
 cubic inches
cubic meters
cubic yards
liters

rods (survey)
 5.029
5.5
1.65 x 101
 meters
yards
feet

square feet
 2.296 x 105
1.44 x 102
9.29 x 102
1.111 x 101
 acres
square inches
square meters
square yards

square inches
 6.944 x 103
6.452 x 102
7.716 x 104
 square feet
square millimeters
square yards

square kilometers
 2.471 x 102
1.076 x 107
1.0 x 106
3.861 x 101
1.196 x 106
 acres
square feet
square meters
square miles
square yards

square meters
 2.471 x 104
1.076 x 101
1.55 x 103
3.861 x 107
1.196
 acres
square feet
square inches
square miles
square yards

square miles
 6.40 x 102
2.788 x 107
2.590
2.590 x 106
3.098 x 106
 acres
square feet
square kilometers
square meters
square yards

square millimeters
 1.076 x 105
1.55 x 103
 square feet
square inches

square yards
 2.066 x 104
8.361 x 101
3.228 x 107
 acres
square meters
square miles

temperature C
 1.8 (+ 32)
 temperature F

temperature F (32)
 5.555 x 101
 temperature C

tons (short)
 9.072 x 102
2.0 x 103
2.43 x 103
9.078 x 101
 kilograms
pounds (avdp)
pounds (troy)
tons (metric)

tons/square foot
 9.765 x 103
1.389 x 101
 kilograms/sq meter
pounds/sq inch

tons/square inch
 1.406 x 106
 kilograms/sq meter

watts
 3.4129
5.688 x 102
1.341 x 103
1.0
 btu/hour
btu/minute
horsepower
joules/second

watthours
 3.413
2.656 x 103
 btu
footpounds

webers/sq inch
 1.55 x 103
 webers/sq meter

yards
 9.144 x 101
4.934 x 104
5.682 x 104
 meters
miles (nautical)
miles (statute)

APPENDIX
3
PROJECT PLANS
(Illustrative Examples)
Project Plans 
(Illustrative Examples)
A. Architectural
Cabinets 5
Childcare Area 5
Door 6
Garage 8
Guard Rail 9
Landscape 10
Lintel 11
Lobby Renovation 12
Reflected Ceiling 14
Renovation Plan 15
Restroom 16
Security Desk 19
Stair 20
Storefront Detail 23
Wall Section 23
Window 26
